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In this view of the Seasons Sarcophagus are, at left the angel of summer, and to the right the angel of fall.

I call this photo, taken in April 2008:

"Seasons Sarcophagus - 3"

Seasons Sarcophagus - 3


This is the couple in the Zodiac.

I call this photo, also taken this April:

"Seasons Sarcophagus - 4."


"To mortal men peace giveth these good things;

Wealth, and the flowers of honey-throated song;

The flame that springs

On carven altars from fat sheep and kine,

Slain to the gods in heaven, and all day long,

Games for glad youths, and flutes and wreaths,

and circling wine."

Bacchylides (Greek poet, c.460 BC), Symonds translation, cited in "The Glory of Hera" (1968) by Philip E. Slater at 161


(May 6, 2009) The Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, Maryland has 8 second century AD marble Roman sarcophagi, of which 6 are complete with lids.

See: this recent digital photograph taken in May 2009 - that I call the "Walters Sarcophagus." It was created c. 190-200 AD and is titled "Sarcophagus with Dionysus and Ariadne." Also see: "Walters Sarcophagus 2." In this scene, a sleeping princess Ariade, on the right, awakens on the isle of Naxos, Greece, to her new husband - Dionysus (whose face has been carved off the marble).

The Walters sarcophagi were found in 1885 in a tomb near the Via Salaria outside Rome. The tomb has three chambers - two of which had Sarcophagi and the other imperial portraits. It was used by the Licinian and Calpurnian families from 135 AD until the 3rd century AD. The Calpurnian family belonged to the mystery cult of Dionysus Sabazius (perhaps having a link to ancient Saba.)

At the top left hand corner of the lid of this Sarcophagus is a Lenos motif - 3 erotes or children pressing grapes in a trough or lenos similar in shape to a sarcophagus. (This lid however, is a later addition.)


The Walters also has a large collection of ancient Egyptian artifacts. These artifacts have reinforced my insight that ancient Egypt had a strong "Habesha" or modern-day Ethiopian flavor. See: for example this Roman-era mummy painting (170-180 AD). I call this digital photo "Roman Egyptian." (Walters link)

(March 17, 2010) The Roman system elevated local elites to Roman citizenship. This Roman Egyptian mummy portrait suggests that Egyptian elites looked like modern day Ethiopians in 170 AD.

In contrast, a mummy portrait from the Ptolemaic or Greek period of Egyptian history (305 BC - 30 BC) in the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History suggests the Egyptian elites looked Greek during the Ptolemaic period. I call this digital photo, taken in March 2010: "Greek Egyptian." It is an Encaustic portrait from Fayum.

Modern day Roma or Gypsies are probably descended from Greek Egyptians. The word "gypsy" derives from Egyptian. Egypt was the Roman emperors private colony, and Greek Egyptians were probably a privileged community in the late empire. Compare with page 29 of this web site. (Roma are the only Aryan speaking community in Europe. Aryans like Greek Egyptians were originally Greek; or originally Phrygian ... See page 64 of this web site.)

(March 18, 2010) In the same room at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History is a copy of fine mural depicting the meeting of Pharaoh and Osiris in the afterlife. (Chapter 125 of the Egyptian Book of the Dead). No exact location for the original is given.

On the left of the mural, Anubis (the jackal-headed god of mummification and guide in the underworld), and Thoth (the ibis-headed god of writing and wisdom), preside over the weighing of Pharaohs heart against the feather of Ma'at (justice and wisdom). (I call this digital photo, taken in March 2010, "Weighing of the Heart.")

In this case, Pharaoh passes the test and is lead to meet Osiris (the green-headed king of the underworld) by Horus (the falcon-headed god of the sun). (I call this digital photo, also taken in March 2010, "Meeting Osiris.")

Or, paraphrasing Wikipedia:

" ... This detail scene, from the Papyrus of Hunefer (ca. 1375 B.C.), shows Hunefer's heart being weighed on the scale of Maat against the feather of truth, by the jackal-headed Anubis. The Ibis-headed Thoth, scribe of the gods, records the result. If his heart is lighter than the feather, Hunefer is allowed to pass into the afterlife. If not, he is eaten by the waiting chimeric devouring creature Ammut composed of the deadly crocodile, lion, and hippopotamus. Vignettes such as these were a common illustration in Egyptian books of the dead. ... "

Book of the Dead, Wikipedia


I also saw (at the Walters) a Roman-era Egyptian manuscript in "Demotic" script - the late Egyptian script that was used until the end of the Roman empire. Demotic has a resemblance to modern day Arabic script.

Arabic script is probably directly descended from Kufic script. - Kufic is credited to Iraq, - however I think that it's from Nubia. A show at the Smithsonian Museum of African Art a few years ago convinced me of this.

Most Koran's prior to the 10th century AD were written in Kufic - Freer Museum of Art. (Early Muslims were given shelter in Abyssinia from religious persecution back home in South Arabia. If early Islam had had a peaceful start Koran's would use a Sabaean script. Kufic points to the hand of Egyptian scribes.)

I have seen at least 5 south-of-Aswan scripts - Greek on King Endubis' coins, Ge'ez on King Ezana's coins, Kufic on ancient inscriptions from Meroe, Sudan, Meroitic script, and "Old Nubian" a modified Coptic or Greek-Egyptian script used by the Nubian church (Coptic plus a few Meroitic letters.)


(Feb. 8, 2010) Regarding Coptic script: See "Coptic Egypt: History and Guide" by Jill Kamil (1987):

" ... Bilingual Egyptians realized long before the conquest of Alexander that if they transcribed their own language into the Greek alphabet, which was well known among the middle classes and was simpler to read than demotic - the cursive form of hieroglyphics in its latest development - communication would be easier. Scribes started transliterating Egyptian sounds into the Greek alphabet, adding seven extra letters from the Egyptian alphabet to accommodate the extra sounds for which there were no Greek letters. The emergence of this new script, known as Coptic, cannot be dated precisely. The earliest attempt to write the Egyptian language alphabetically in Greek, feeble but important, has survived in an inscription dating to the Kushite dynasty (750 - 656 BC) at Abydos; and there was a time when Coptic and demotic were used simultaneously. Demotic Instruction Literature for example, survived well into the Roman period, and Demotic graffiti have been found in the Temple of Isis at Philae that date to as late as AD 452, a time when widespread use of script other than Coptic had long died out ... "

Coptic Egypt at 22

(Feb. 11, 2010) The Kushite or 25th dynasty of ancient Egypt was probably the period when the Ark of the Covenant was allegedly relocated from Jerusalem to Africa. (See page 43 of this site.) Ancient Israel was under the control of black pharaohs at this time.

But "black" is a relative term here; - by contemporary American standards most ancient Pharaohs would be considered "black." Pharaoh is an office that became progressively Mediterranean. From "black" (ancient Sphinx; Nubians) to Ethiopian and Libyan/Touareg (mixed race), to Arab/Assyrian/Persian to Greek (Ptolemy's; - Cleopatra etc.) and finally to Roman. (And after Rome? - only conjecture ...).

(March 5, 2010) The primary source for information on pre-Greek Pharaohs is Manetho, who wrote the Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt) and is associated with the reigns of Ptolemy I (323-283 BC) and Ptolemy II (283-246 BC). My intuition tells me the Manetho was a remnant of the Kushite dynasty - probably a member of my tribe, the Kikuyu. (This is probably the best avenue for recovering ancient black African history.) For Manetho, Isis is equivalent to Demeter, Thoth is Hermes, Horus is Apollo and Set is Typhon (volume 1 of the Aegyptiaca).

This surprised me about Isis, because Demeter is associated with the land of the dead. However, Isis is usually depicted with a vulture on her head - indicating a link with death and decay.

Also surprising is the Greek tradition that Memnon was an Ethiopian. Memnon was killed by Achilles, indicating that ancient black Africa was on the Trojan side of the Trojan war. Manetho equates Memnon with Amenopis. This may refer to several ancient Pharaohs - the most famous being King Akhenaten (1353 BC – 1336 BC) the father of King Tutankhamun. Akhenaten looks like a Maasai. King Tut and Queen Nefertiti look Ethiopian.

(March 21, 2010) Correction: I think Wikipedia might have made a mistake on the translation of Egyptian gods to Greek gods. In the Loeb Classical Library version of Manetho, translated by W.G. Waddell (1940): Zeus is Amun, the sun is Isis and the moon is Osiris.

Also of interest is Manetho's take on Moses. According to Josephus, a Jewish Roman writer:

" ... The first writer upon whom I shall dwell is one whom I used a little earlier as a witness to our antiquity. I refer to Manetho. This writer who had undertaken to translate the history of Egypt from the sacred books, began by stating that our ancestors came against Egypt with many tens of thousands and gained mastery over the inhabitants; and then he himself admitted that at a later date again they were driven out of the country, occupied what is now Judea, founded Jerusalem, and built the temple. ... It is said that the priest who framed their constitution and their laws was a native of Heliopolis, named Osarseph after the god Osiris, worshiped at Helipolis; but when he joined this people, he changed his name and was called Moses. ..."

from Josephus, Contra Apionem, in the Loeb version of Manetho at 119 - 131


For Manetho the 3 kings of the 25th dynasty were Ethiopian: Sabacon, Schichos (or Sebichos) and Taracus (or Saracus) as was the first king of the 26th dynasty, Ameres.

Also, for Manetho, Persians made up 8 kings of the 27th dynasty: Cambyses, Darius, Xerxes, Artabanus, Artaxeres, Xerxes, Sogdianus and Darius.

Manetho, translated from the Greek by W.G. Waddell (1940), at 167-175


(March 26, 2010) Finally, in the Loeb Manetho, for Egyptians the Nile was P-year-o, or Pyearo, and water was Mo-y. Madji in Swahili, Ma-e in Kikuyu ("Ma" as in "Map", "e" as in "edit").

I am not a fluent Kikuyu speaker though until I was 4 years old, Kikuyu was the only language that I spoke. When my dad was a diplomat in New York city he ordered my mother to force us to switch to English. So today I can hear Kikuyu, but have a bizarre mental block when it comes to speaking it - I can't do it. Strangely enough, sometimes when I'm dreaming I speak fluent Kikuyu.

Many English settlers in Kenya were fluent in Kikuyu. A famous example is the anthropologist L.S.B. Leakey (1903-1972). As a young man Louis Leakey went through Kikuyu initiation ceremonies before entering Cambridge University. (His father translated the Bible into Kikuyu.)

One of my aunt's, when she was in Zimbabwe, had a funny encounter with an elderly ex-white Kenyan who had moved to Rhodesia after independence (1963). She was complaining about him on an airplane in Kikuyu and he complained back in Kikuyu!


A lot of new information on here. Now I know why I was so fascinated with Mithradates on page 29 of this site: his family's claim to descent from Darius was really a claim for descent from Pharaoh. The 27th dynasty of ancient Egypt left a heavy Persian imprint upon the Mediterranean world, Africa and the Middle-East.


Old Nubian script was used in Sudan until the 15th century AD - i.e. up until the end of Byzantium (1453). After this time Arabic is the only script used in Sudan. The Maasai began migrating south into Kenya and Tanzania at around this time.

But it's more than the Maasai - many tribes in Uganda, Kenya and Ethiopia speak "Nilotic" languages. Today Old Nubian is assigned to a small population living on the Sudan-Egyptian border - however Nubia was a much larger entity in ancient times and therefore a larger lens is required.

(May 27, 2009) For more detail on Nubian Christianity see: "Nubian Rescue" (1975) by Rex Keating.

"... I always speak of the last page in the history of ancient Egypt, because while Christianity in the fifth and sixth centuries was flourishing in Egypt itself and while, we might say, the Sutton Hoo treasure was being buried in England and Saxon England was flourishing, at that time there down in the far south were the last remnants of ancient Egypt, with these X-Group kings whoever they are - still considering themselves Pharaohs. Wearing silver jewelled crowns with the ancient Egyptian emblems, the ancient Egyptian crowns and the figures of the goddess Isis on the saddles of their horses. All that mixed up with other objects that they'd obviously plundered from Egypt itself, objects with the crucifix and other Christian emblems on them. And again their weapons appeared to be all very African in character, their rather shovel-headed spears similar to what you get far south with the Masai tribes at the present day."

Nubian Rescue (1975) at 182 -183. (Rex Keating quoting W.B. Emery who excavated the so-called X-group kings in Sudan in 1927.) X-Group crown photo.


The end of Byzantium was not necessarily a win for Islam. This is a clouded area of history - full of mythology. And from an objective point of view it has been an unrelenting tragedy for Islam.

It's as if an unseen dark cloud fell over the entire middle east. From this cloud we get the birth of Russia and an entire corpus of dark myths - vampires, "Aryans" etc.... It's almost as if the Greeks of Byzantium made a faustian bargain and turned into something else ...

(June 3, 2009) Perhaps the most persistent myths here are those surrounding Hassan-i-Sabbah (1034-1124 AD) - the "Old Man of the Mountain"; his earthly paradise in a hidden valley, and his legions of "Hashshashin" or "Assassins."

I was reminded of these myths by the character played by Mick Jagger in the 1970 movie "Performance," - "nothing is true, everything is permitted."

(September 5, 2009) Also compare with Italo Calvino's 1972 novel "Invisible Cities."


(Feb. 17, 2013) And the the 13th-century AD Turco-Mongol khanate the "Golden Horde." According the Wikipedia:

"... The territory of the Golden Horde at its peak included most of Eastern Europe from the Urals to the right banks of the Danube River, extending east deep into Siberia. In the south, the Golden Horde's lands bordered on the Black Sea, the Caucasus Mountains, and the territories of the Mongol dynasty known as the Ilkhanate ..." 

Wikipedia, The Golden Horde. (Feb. 2013)

Also see the Encyclopedia Britannica's "Golden Horde."


(Feb. 18, 2013) 50 years before the Mongol invasion a letter from a "Prester John" to Manuel Comnenus, the Emperor of Byzantium in 1165 AD proclaimed the existence of an middle-eastern and perhaps African Christian realm.

My intuition is this network was later integrated as the westernmost, Christian, portion of the Golden Horde. (It's probably the Sabaean world surveyed on page 43 of this website.)

" ... If indeed you wish to know wherein consists our great power, then believe without doubting that I, Prester John, who reigns supreme, exceed in riches, virtue, and power all creatures who dwell under heaven. Seventy-two kings pay tribute to me. I am a devout Christian and everywhere protect the Christians of our empire, nourishing them with alms ...

Our magnificence dominates the Three Indias, and extends to Farther India, where the body of St. Thomas the Apostle rests. It reaches though the desert  toward the place of the rising sun, and continues though the valley of deserted Babylon close by the Tower of Babel. Seventy-two provinces obey us, a few of which are Christian provinces; and each has its own king. And all their kings are our tributaries. ...

During each month we are served at our table by seven kings, each in his turn, by sixty two dukes, and by three hundred and sixty five counts, aside from those who carry out various tasks on our account. In our hall there dine daily, on our right hand, twelve archbishops, and on our left twenty bishops, and also the Patriarch of St. Thomas, the Protopapas of Samarkand, and the Archprotopapas of Susa, in which city the throne of our glory and our imperial palace are situated. ...

If you can count the stars of the sky and the sands of the sea, you will be able to judge thereby the vastness of our realm and our power ... "

Letter from "Prester John" to Manuel Comnenus, Emperor of Byzantium (1165 AD). Cited in Robert Silverberg's "The Realm of Prester John" (1972.)

(Feb 21, 2013) This letter was almost certainly written by a Nestorian Christian nobleman of Persian extraction. Apparently, during the Sassanian dynasty, besides the traditional Zoroastrian faith, the pre-Islamic Persian world was Nestorian Christian.


- At its peak, during the reign of Oz Beg, (1313 - 1341), the Golden Horde adapted Islam as the official State religion.


(March 23, 2011) Of all the alleged heirs to Byzantium, perhaps the strangest, and strongest claim belongs to Venice. This point was brought home to me at a recent show at the National Gallery of Art: "Canaletto and his rivals."

Apparently, before her surrender to Napoleon in 1797, the Venetian Republic and was the de facto ruler of the Mediterranean world for 1,000 years. Also, it appears that Venice, not the Turks, was responsible for the bulk of looting and plunder of Constantinople before the end came in 1454.

See: Viscount Norwich's "A short history of Byzantium" (1997):

" ... On 1 August 1203, Alexius IV Angelus was crowned alongside his father. Immediately he regretted the offers he had made in the spring. The treasury was empty; the new taxes that he was obliged to introduce were openly resented by his subjects, who knew full well where their money was going. The clergy was scandalized when he seized and melted down the church plate, and furious at his plans to subordinate them to Rome ...

When a few days later, a delegation of three Crusaders and three Venetians came to the Emperor to demand immediate payment of the sum owing to them, there was nothing that could be done: and so the war began. Neither the Crusaders nor the Greeks wanted it. The people of Constantinople wished only to be rid of these Western thugs who were destroying their city and bleeding them white in the bargain. The Franks resented their enforced stay among an effete and effeminate people when they should have been getting to grips with the infidel. Even if the Greek debt were to be paid in full, they would not benefit materially; it would only enable them to settle their own outstanding account with the Venetians.

The key to all this lay with Enrico Dandolo [the Doge or elected chief magistrate of Venice]. He, at any moment, could give his fleet the order to sail: the Crusaders would have been relieved and the Byzantines overjoyed. Formerly, he had refused on the grounds that the Franks would never be able to pay him their debt until they received the money from Alexius. He had almost now forgotten that debt. His mind was now fixed on a far greater objective: the overthrow of the Byzantine Empire. And so his advice took a different tone. Nothing more could be expected of the Angeli: if the Crusaders were ever to obtain their due, they would have to take Constantinople by force. Once inside the city, with one of their own leaders on the throne, they could settle the debt and finance the Crusade. This was their opportunity, it would not recur.

... For the Crusaders, one chance only remained: an all-out attempt on the city. It was exactly what Dandolo had been advocating for months, and the old Doge, who was by now recognized by Venetians and Franks alike as the leader of the entire expedition, called a series of council meetings in the camp of Galata. They were concerned less with the plan of attack than with the administration of the Empire after its conquest. It was agreed that the Franks and the Venetians should each appoint six delegates to an electoral committee, and that this should choose the new Emperor. If it decided on a Frank, then the Patriarch should be a Venetian; otherwise vice versa. The Emperor would receive a quarter of the city and of the Empire, including the two chief palaces - Blachernae on the Golden Horn and the old palace on the Marmara. The remaining three-quarters should be divided equally, half going to Venice and half in fief to the Crusading knights. For the Venetian portion, the Doge was specifically absolved from the need to do the Emperor homage.

... Once the walls were breached the carnage was dreadful. Only at nightfall did the conquerors call a truce and withdraw to their camp in one of the great squares of the city. The next morning they awoke to find all resistance at an end. But for the people of Constantinople the tragedy had scarcely began. Not for nothing had the Franks waited so long outside the world's richest city. Now that the customary three days looting was allowed them, they fell on it like locusts. ...

... While the Franks abandoned themselves to a frenzy of destruction, the Venetians kept their heads. They too looted - but they did not destroy. They knew beauty when they saw it. All that they could lay their hands on they sent back to Venice - beginning with the four great bronze horses which, from their high platform above the main door of St. Mark's, were to dominate the Piazza for the next eight centuries.

After three days of terror, order was restored. Then all the spoils were gathered together and careful distribution made: a quarter for the Emperor when elected, the remainder to be split equally between the Franks and Venetians. As soon as it was done, the Crusaders paid their debt to Enrico Dandolo. Both parties then applied themselves to the next task: the election of the new Emperor. Dandolo had no difficulty in steering the electors towards the easy-going and tractable Count Baldwin of Flanders who on 16 May received his coronation in St. Sophia - the third Emperor to be crowned there in less than a year. In return, Venice appropriated the best for her own. She was entitled to three-eighths of the city and the Empire, together with free trade throughout the imperial dominions, from which both her principal rivals, Genoa and Pisa were to be rigorously excluded. In Constantinople itself, the Doge demanded the entire district surrounding St. Sophia and the Patriachate, reaching right down to the shore of the Golden Horn, for the rest, he took for Venice all those regions that promised to give her an unbroken chain of colonies and ports from the lagoon to the Black Sea including the Peloponnese and the all-important island of Crete.

Thus it was the Venetians who were to real beneficiaries of the Fourth Crusade; and their success was due, almost exclusively, to Enrico Dandolo. Refusing the Byzantine crown for himself - to have accepted it would have created insuperable constitutional problems at home and might have destroyed the Republic - he nevertheless secured a Venetian majority and the success of his own candidate. Furthermore, while encouraging the Franks to feudalize the Empire he had kept Venice outside the feudal framework holding her new dominions not as an imperial fief but by her own right of conquest. For a blind man not far short of ninety it was a remarkable achievement ...

John Julius Norwich, A Short History of Byzantium (1997) at 303 - 306

Seasons Sarcophagus - 4

(8/31/2010) For purposes of comparison, the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History has a list of the Kings of Egypt.


Predynastic: Badarian, Naqada I, Naqada II, Naqada III

1st Dynasty: Aha, Dyer, Wadj, Den, Adjib, Semerkhet, Qa'a

2nd Dynasty: Hotepsekhemwy, Nebre, Ninetjer, Peribsen, Khasekhemwy

3rd Dynasty: Nebka, Djoser, Djoser-Teti, Kha'ba, Huni

4th Dynasty: Snefru, Khufu (Cheops), Djedefre, Khafre (Chephren), Menkaure (Mycerinus), Shepseskaf

5th Dynasty: Userkaf, Sahure, Neferirkare, Shepseskare, Neferefre, Niuserre, Menkauhor, Diedkare, Wenis (Unas)

6th Dynasty: Teti, Pepy I, Merenre, Pepy II, Nitokris

11th Dynasty: Mentuhotep II, Mentuhotep III, Mentuhotep IV

12th Dynasty: Amenemhet I, Senwosret I, Amenemket II, Senwosret II, Senwosret III, Amenemhet III, Neferusobek

13th Dynasty: Sehetepre, Sobekhotep I, Khendjer, Sobekhotep IV, Sobekhotep V

15th Dynasty: Sheshi, Khyan, Apepi

17th Dynasty: Intef VII, Sobekemsaf I, Ta'o I, Ta'o II, Kamose

18th Dynasty: Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, Tuthmosis I, Tuthmosis II, Hatshepsut, Tuthmosis III, Amenhotep II, Tuthmosis IV, Amenhotep III, Amonhotep IV (Akhenaten), Smenkhkare, Tutankhamen, Ay, Horemheb

19th Dynasty: Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, Merneptah, Amenmesse, Sety II, Siptah, Tawosret

20th Dynasty: Sethnakht, Ramses III, Ramses IV, Ramses V, Ramses VI, Ramses VIII, Ramses IX, Ramses X, Ramses XI

23rd Dynasty: Shoshenq IX, Osorkon III, Takelot III

24th Dynasty: Tefnakht

25th Dynasty: Alara, Kashta, Piankhi, Shabaka, Shebitka, Taharqu, Tunatiamen

26th Dynasty: Psametik I, Necho II, Psametic II, Apries, Amose II (Amasis), Psametic III

27th Dynasty: Kambyses, Darius, Xeres I, Artaxeres I, Xeres II, Darius II, Artaxeres II

30th Dynasty: Nectanebo I, Teos, Nectanebo II

Macedonian Dynasty: Alexander III (the Great), Philip Arrhideas, Alexander IV

Ptolemaic Dynasty: Ptolemy I, Ptolemy II, Ptolemy V, Kleopatra VII

Roman Dynasty: Augustus, Tiberius, Nero, Trajan, Hadrian, Diocletian


For me the Kushite, Persian, Greek and Roman Pharaohs are all very new and very strange. They almost seen to be "invisible" - i.e.: behind a collective or group censor. ...

(Sept 15, 2010) 25th dynasty is Kushite or Nubian. Other clearly black Pharaohs include:

Huni of the 3rd Dynasty;

Khufu (or Cheops) of the 4th Dynasty - who is credited with building the pyramids at Giza;

his son Djedefre, also of the 4th Dynasty;

Sahure of the 5th Dynasty;

Neferefre of the 5th Dynasty;

Niuserre of the 5th Dynasty;

and Mentuhotep II of the 11th Dynasty.

Also, in my opinion 26th dynasty is what we call "Ethiopian" today - or "Habesha." See for example Amose II (Amasis).

Herodotus considered Amose II to be a "native" - reinforcing my intuition that ancient Egyptians looked like "Habesha." There is also more direct evidence of this in well-made ancient Egyptian statues and paintings ...

Also, if you look at female mummy hair samples and compare them to modern-day female "Habesha" hair samples - they look the same.

But not the language, though. In Amharic, the "Habesha" tongue, water is "wuha" - which is nothing like the Egyptian "Mo-y." The Kikuyu "Ma-e" is much closer. Amharic is a Semitic language - related to Arabic and Hebrew.

Kikuyu is Bantu (central and southern Africa) - but it has Nilotic words mixed in; and I think Kikuyu's rhythm and intonation is closely related to the rhythm and intonation of ancient Egyptian.

Finally, ancient Kikuyu may have had contact with Bactrians - the "Aryan" princes of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Kikuyu refer to white people as "yeuthi" (although "athogo" is more commonly used) - this may be an ancient echo of "yeuzi" - what ancient Chinese called the Bactrian princes. Yeuthi also has connotations of wealth.


(Sept. 1, 2010) "Trajan's Tragedy" is a recurring fantasy here. As is 398 AD. - A recurring fantasy of Trajan (Roman emperor from 98 AD - 117 AD) and east Africa.

If I had to read this fantasy like I would read a dream - it would be a deepening of Roman relations with the Nile - culminating with a final and complete relocation of Roman Power to the Nile in the late 300's. Trajan began the process when he annexed Arabia to the Roman empire in 107 AD.

Egypt is the Nile, but so are Sudan, Ethiopia and East Africa. Research here is close to non-existent. A good starting point would be the finest bronze head of Augustus - found in Sudan, and "Rearing Horse with Himyartic inscriptions" - what I call "Yemen Horse" on this web site.


Nothing beside remains.

Round the decay of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare.

The lone and level sands stretch far away.

Percy Bysshe Shelley

Ozymandias (1818)


(The Origins of Western Culture Hall - "the Mummy Hall", at the Natural History Museum, first opened in 1978, will be closing on Sept. 26, 2010 for a 3 year renovation.)


(June 10, 2013) A few recent photos from the Metropolitan Museum of Art Ancient Egyptian collection:

- 4th Dynasty Archers

- King Sahure; 5th Dynasty

- Merti; 5th Dynasty Official (Acacia wood)

- Nikare; 5th Dynasty Official

- King Mentuhotep II; 11th Dynasty

- King Amenemhat III; 12th Dynasty

- Head of a King; 13th Dynasty

- King Akhenaten; 18th Dynasty

- Queen Tiye, 18th Dynasty

- 18th Dynasty Head

- 18th Dynasty Musicians

- 18th Dynasty Horses

- 18th Dynasty Bas-Relief

- 18th Dynasty Procession

- 18th Dynasty Necklace (compare with modern Maasai neckware)

- Prince Haremhab, 18th Dynasty

- Prince Haremhab - 2, 18th Dynasty

- 18th Dynasty Tilapia

- 18th Dynasty Vines

- 18th Dynasty Amun

- Roman Dynasty Bas-Relief


(June 10, 2013) The Greek Oedipus Rex myth is probably a fictionalized recounting of the fall of an African Royal House: the Kings of Thebes, Egypt rather than the fall of the Kings of Thebes, Greece.

And Oedipus is probably connected with the turmoil that occured when the ancient god Amon was replaced with the sun-god during the 18th dynasty reign of King Akhenaten.

According to "Oedipus Rex" in Wikipedia: In 1960, Immanuel Velikovsky (1895–1979) published a book called Oedipus and Akhnaton which made a comparison between the stories of the legendary Greek figure, Oedipus, and the historic Egyptian King of Thebes, Akhnaton. The book is presented as a thesis that combines with Velikovsky's series Ages in Chaos, concluding through his revision of Egyptian history that the Greeks who wrote the tragedy of Oedipus may have penned it in likeness of the life and story of Akhnaton, because in the revision Akhnaton would have lived much closer to the time when the legend first surfaced in Greece, providing an historical basis for the story. Each of the major characters in the Greek story are identified with the people involved in Akhnaton's family and court, and some interesting parallels are drawn. ...

...The two cities of Troy and Thebes were the major focus of Greek epic poetry. The events surrounding the Trojan War were chronicled in the Epic Cycle, of which much remains, and those about Thebes in the Theban Cycle, which have been lost. The Theban Cycle recounted the sequence of tragedies that befell the house of Laius, of which the story of Oedipus is a part.

Homer's Odyssey (XI.271ff.) contains the earliest account of the Oedipus myth when Odysseus encounters Jocasta (named Epicaste) in the underworld. Homer briefly summarises the story of Oedipus, including the incest, patricide, and Jocasta's subsequent suicide. However, in the Homeric version, Oedipus remains King of Thebes after the revelation and neither blinds himself, nor is sent into exile. In particular, it is said that the gods made the matter of his paternity known, whilst in Oedipus the King, Oedipus very much discovers the truth himself.

In 467 BCE, Sophocles's fellow tragedian Aeschylus won first prize at the City Dionysia with a trilogy about the House of Laius, comprising Laius, Oedipus and Seven against Thebes (the only play which survives). Since he did not write connected trilogies as Aeschylus did, Oedipus the King focuses on the titular character while hinting at the larger myth obliquely, which was already known to the audience in Athens at the time. ..."

Oedipus Rex, Wikipedia.


Thebes, Egypt is the Greek name for Karnak. The Temple of Karnak, at 247 acres and built over 1300 years under 30 Pharoahs, is a forgotten wonder of the ancient world.

According to

" ...... This derelict place is still capable of overshadowing many of the wonders of the modern world and in its day must have been awe inspiring.

For the largely uneducated ancient Egyptian population this could only have been the place of the gods. It is the mother of all religious buildings, the largest ever made and a place of pilgrimage for nearly 4,000 years. Although todays pilgrims are mainly tourists. It covers about 200 acres 1.5km by 0.8km The area of the sacred enclosure of Amon alone is 61 acres and would hold ten average European cathedrals.The great temple at the heart of Karnak is so big, St Peter's, Milan and Notre Dame Cathedrals could be lost within its walls. The Hypostyle hall at 54,000 square feet with its 134 columns is still the largest room of any religious building in the world. ..."



(June 22, 2013) The goose being sacrificed in the Akhenaten plate above is probably Amon. According to "", Amon was a minor Theban deity until the 12th Dynasty. He was originally represented as a goose.

Amon's status changed from a minor Theban deity to a national Egyptian deity after being credited with a Theban military victory over foreign rulers from the north: the Hyksos.

Also, according to Wikipedia, in Kush (Nubia), Amon was called Amani. Peace in Swahili. Another name for Amon in Kush was Natakamani. Nataka Amani is "want peace" or "desire peace" in Swahili.

Amon is also the root of "Amen": the "Amen" after prayer. Amon is probably an early form of Yahweh.


Akhtenaten killed his father, Amon, and married his mother Isis; the sun-goddess. The original Oedipus Rex. He also birthed the sun-worshipping greco-roman world.

As a coincidence, the world of Exodus and Moses begins in the 18th Dynasty.


(June 28, 2013) According to the Met, the Roman Dynasty relief: " ... originally formed part of a screen wall that connected the four front columns and the sidewalls of the temple of Harendotes ("Horus the Avenger") on the island of Philae. The relief represents the "Baptism of Pharoah," a purification ritual that was part of Egyptian coronation ceremonies. The gods Horus (not preserved) and the ibis-headed Thoth poured water - here represented by streams of ankh (life) and was (dominion) hieroglyphs - over the head of the king. The pharaoh whose head is partially preserved is a Claudian emperor most probably either Claudius or Nero. ..."


(September 9, 2013) The Baltimore Museum of Art has a collection of late Roman to early Sassanian Mosaics from Antioch, Turkey. They were excavated in the 1930's by Robert Garrett, heir to the Baltimore & Ohio railroad robber baron fortune. Included are what I call:

- Antioch Mosaic

- Antioch Mosaic - 2

- Hippocamp

- Hippocamp - 2

- Sea Nymph

- Sea Nymph - 2

- Antioch Dionysus

- Antioch Menead

- Antioch Diadem

- Abduction of Europa

Page 60


2008 by Waweru Njenga. All rights reserved.

First posted: 5/8/2008



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