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This is a pair of photo's from the recent Sackler show: "Caravan Kingdoms: Yemen and the ancient incense trade." Having gone to high school in Ethiopia, I was intrigued by the ancient Yemeni alphabet (Sabaean) on these artifacts which is still in use today in Ethiopia - with major 4th century AD modifications.

These are the lands of the Queen of Sheba. In Ethiopian mythology, the kings of Ethiopia descend from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba - and there is a legend that after the biblical exodus from Egypt (c. 1250 BC), the Ark of the Covenant was spirited back to Ethiopia where it rests today in a monastery in Axum. See: "Kebra Negast" - the 13th century AD Ethiopian "Glory of Kings." Also see: "The Sign and the Seal: The quest for the lost Ark of the Covenant" (1992) by Graham Hancock.

This is a photo of an alabaster ibex frieze found in a 5th century BC Yemeni temple. The ibex motif is familiar in Ethiopian art.

(Nov. 6/05) For example: in an arabic version of the Solomon/Sheba myth, Abyssinia (Ethiopia) was traditionally ruled by a line of royal princesses. One of those princesses had relations with a handsome goat producing Makeda or the Queen of Sheba. Makeda was born with a goat-foot that King Solomon subsequently transformed into a human foot. This can probably be read as the transition from the pagan (or Sabaean) world of the sun-goddess Shams, the "queen of the south", to Judaism. See: Introduction to "The Kebra Negast" translated by Sir E.A.T. Wallis Budge (1932).

More generally, in East Africa, goats are central to the culture and are slaughtered at births, circumcisions, weddings and all manner of celebrations.

Finally, from the viewpoint of precession of the equinoxes, the ruling constellation in the night sky during this period was Aries - the constellation associated with Pan and the classic Greek gods.

(Nov. 17/05) I recently saw an example of an ibex frieze in a 6th century BC Sabaean temple in Ethiopia. See: "In search of Myths and Heroes - The Queen of Sheba/Arthur: The Once and Future King" (2005) - a documentary by Michael Wood. He associates the ibex motif with the Sabaean moon-god.

Mainstream archaeology has a tendency to see the Sabaean culture through an Arab and Mesopotamian lens. However, I think that the true context, and source, of Sabaean culture is Nile valley civilization south of Aswan - i.e.: Nubia and ancient Ethiopia.

(Feb. 20/06) The Islamic crescent and star probably derives from the Sabaean symbol for the sun-goddess Shams - a crescent below a solar disc. See for example: the crescent and disc symbol at the top of pre-Christian Axumite coins. (Compare with the symbol of Isis - a solar disc over the crescent horns of a bull.)

(Nov. 22/06) 2 other countries also probably use Sabaean derived alphabets - Armenia and Georgia; both originating with the 5th century AD missionary St. Mesrob. See: "In the beginning: Bibles before the year 1000," the Sackler's current show on pre-1000 AD bibles. (One mystery this current Sackler show raises is where are all the regular books from late Rome? This show has spectacularly well-preserved bibles from the 4th century AD - bound like 20th century books.)

(May 18/07) A 19th century conflict between imperial Russia and the moslem Caucasus is probably the best conceptual model we have today of the conflict between imperial Rome and the "Aryan" world. See for example: "The Sabres of Paradise" (1960) by Leslie Blanch. Frank Herbert's "Dune" (1965) covers the same ground, but this time in the guise of a science-fiction fable. (Herbert almost certainly has a debt to Blanch - and a few passages in "Dune" are nearly word for word identical to passages from "The Sabres of Paradise.")

I call this photo, taken in August 2005:


Ibex - Sackler Yemen show


This is a bronze of a rearing horse from the 2-3rd century AD. Art from this period of Yemeni culture has a Greco-Roman quality probably from contact with the Roman Empire. It resides permanently in Washington, DC at Dumbarton Oaks in Georgetown.

I call this photo, also taken in August 2005:

"Yemen Horse."

Yemen Horse - Sackler Yemen Show


(April 15, 2017) The Axumites may have placed an African on the British throne during Kebra Negast days: Richard II the Plantagenet heir of Edward Woodstock ("black") of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Prince of Aquitaine, KG 15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376 eldest son King Edward III - who died as Prince of Wales before taking the throne.

Prince Edward was: "Edward, Prince of Wales (b.1330 d. 1376) Elder son of Edward III, known to contemporaries as Edward of Woodstock and to later ages as the Black Prince. First Duke of Cornwall. Commanded English right wing at Battle of Crecy aged only 16. A founder Knight of the Garter and regarded in his lifetime as the pattern of Knightly chivalry. Won Battle of Poitiers, 1356, capturing French King. By his wife Joan, “The Fair Maid of Kent”, he was father of Richard II. Arms and Crest based on those of Canterbury Cathedral. ... "


There is controversy as to the meaning of the term "black" prince. However, an image of him looks Ethiopian.


The physical description of his mother also sounds African: According to Wikipedia:

" ... King Edward II had decided that an alliance with Flanders would benefit England and sent Bishop Stapledon of Exeter on the Continent as an ambassador. On his journey, he crossed into the county of Hainaut to inspect the daughters of Count William of Hainaut, to determine which daughter would be the most suitable as an eventual bride for Prince Edward. The bishop's report to the king describes one of the count's daughters in detail. A later annotation says it describes Philippa as a child, but historian Ian Mortimer argues that it is actually an account of her older sister Margaret. The description runs: The lady whom we saw has not uncomely hair, betwixt blue-black and brown. Her head is clean-shaped; her forehead high and broad, and standing somewhat forward. Her face narrows between the eyes, and the lower part of her face is still more narrow and slender than her forehead. Her eyes are blackish-brown and deep. Her nose is fairly smooth and even, save that it is somewhat broad at the tip and also flattened, and yet it is no snub-nose. Her nostrils are also broad, her mouth fairly wide. Her lips somewhat full, and especially the lower lip. Her teeth which have fallen and grown again are white enough, but the rest are not so white. The lower teeth project a little beyond the upper; yet this is but little seen. Her ears and chin are comely enough. Her neck, shoulders, and all her body are well set and unmaimed; and nought is amiss so far as a man may see. Moreover, she is brown of skin all over, and much like her father; and in all things she is pleasant enough, as it seems to us. And the damsel will be of the age of nine years on St. John's day next to come, as her mother saith. She is neither too tall nor too short for such an age; she is of fair carriage, and well taught in all that becometh her rank, and highly esteemed and well beloved of her father and mother and of all her meinie, in so far as we could inquire and learn the truth. ... " Philippa of Hainault, Wikipedia


(April 17, 2017) It's the moor Othello. That's who the "black" prince is. Both extremely obscure, and extremely well known. Othello makes no sense. Up until the end of apartheid, for example, only blackface white actors could play Othello in South Africa. Shakespeare had no grounds to concoct the moorish general - except cold hard facts.

The fact pattern indicates Prince Edward Woodstock was de-facto King of England. And almost a Bismarck figure on the continent:

" ... Edward was born on 15 June 1330 at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire. He was created Earl of Chester on 18 May 1333, Duke of Cornwall on 17 March 1337 (the first creation of an English duke) and finally invested as Prince of Wales on 12 May 1343 when he was almost thirteen years old. In England, Edward served as a symbolic regent for periods in 1339, 1340, and 1342 while Edward III was on campaign. He was expected to attend all council meetings, and he performed the negotiations with the papacy about the war in 1337. He also served as High Sheriff of Cornwall from 1340–1341, 1343, 1358 and 1360–1374.

Edward had been raised with his cousin Joan, "The Fair Maid of Kent".Edward gained permission for the marriage from Pope Innocent VI and absolution for marriage to a blood-relative (as had Edward III when marrying Philippa of Hainault, his second cousin) and married Joan on 10 October 1361 at Windsor Castle. The marriage caused some controversy, mainly because of Joan's chequered marital history and the fact that marriage to an Englishwoman wasted an opportunity to form an alliance with a foreign power.

When in England, Edward's chief residence was at Wallingford Castle in Berkshire (since 1974 in Oxfordshire), or at Berkhamsted Castle in Hertfordshire.

He served as the king's representative in Aquitaine, where he and Joan kept a court which was considered among the most fashionable of the time.It was the resort of exiled kings such as James IV of Majorca and Peter of Castile.

Peter of Castile, thrust from his throne by his illegitimate brother Henry of Trastámara, offered Edward the lordship of Biscay in 1367, in return for the Black Prince's aid in recovering his throne. Edward was successful in the Battle of Nájera (April 3), in which he soundly defeated the combined French and Castilian forces led by Bertrand du Guesclin. However Peter did not pay fully and refused to yield Biscay, alleging lack of consent of its states. Edward retreated to Guienne by July.

The Black Prince returned to England in January 1371 and died on 8 June 1376 (a week before his 46th birthday), after a long-lasting illness that was probably amoebic dysentery contracted ten years earlier while campaigning in Spain. ... "Wikipedia

Furthermore: " ... " ... Edward lived in a century of decline for the knightly ideal of chivalry. On one hand, after capturing John the Good, king of France, and Philip the Bold, his youngest son, at the Battle of Poitiers, he treated them with great respect — at one point he gave John permission to return home, and reportedly prayed with John at Canterbury Cathedral. Notably, he also allowed a day for preparations before the Battle of Poitiers so that the two sides could discuss the coming battle with one another, and so that the Cardinal Périgord could plead for peace. However, some argue "he may have been playing for time to complete preparation of his archers' positions."

On the other hand, his chivalric tendencies were overridden by expediency on many occasions. The Black Prince's repeated use of the chevauchée strategy (burning and pillaging towns and farms) was not in keeping with contemporary notions of chivalry, but it was quite effective in accomplishing the goals of his campaigns and weakening the unity and economy of France. ... "

Death of the black Prince: " ... " ... Edward the Black Prince seemed to have good health until 1366. It was not until his campaign in Spain to restore Don Pedro the Cruel to the throne of Castille that he became ill.On this expedition, his army suffered so badly from dysentery that it is said that one out of every five Englishmen would not return home. Edward the Black Prince contracted an illness on this expedition that would ail him until his death in 1376. It is widely believed that he contracted amoebic dysentery but some argue against the likelihood that he could sustain life with a ten-year battle with dysentery.Other possible diagnoses include edema, nephritis, cirrhosis or a combination of these.His illness prevented him participating on the battlefield. However, in 1370, the Prince had to leave his sick bed and raise an army to defend Aquitaine against Charles V of France.In 1371, Edward the Black Prince’s health declined to the point where his physicians advised him to leave Bordeaux and return home to England. After much rest and dieting in England, the Prince saw improvement in his health. In 1372, he sailed on an expedition with King Edward III but failed to land on the French Coast due to contrary winds. After the attempted expedition with King Edward III, the Prince’s health declined drastically. He would often faint because of weakness. This run of poor health continued until his death in 1376, aged 45. ... " Wikipedia

Burial of the black Prince: " ... Edward died at Westminster Palace. He requested to be buried in the crypt of Canterbury Cathedral rather than next to the shrine, and a chapel was prepared there as a chantry for him and his wife Joan, Countess of Kent. (This is now the French Protestant Chapel, and contains ceiling bosses of her face and of their coats of arms.) However, this was overruled after his death and he was buried on the south side of the shrine of Thomas Becket behind the quire. His tomb consists of a bronze effigy beneath a tester depicting the Holy Trinity, with his heraldic achievements hung over the tester. The achievements have now been replaced by replicas, though the originals can still be seen nearby. The tester was restored in 2006.

Such as thou art, sometime was I.

Such as I am, such shalt thou be.
I thought little on th'our of Death
So long as I enjoyed breath.
On earth I had great riches
Land, houses, great treasure, horses, money and gold.
But now a wretched captive am I,
Deep in the ground, lo here I lie.
My beauty great, is all quite gone,
My flesh is wasted to the bone.

-Epitaph inscribed around his effigy. ... " Wikipedia


Children of the black Prince: " ... Edward had illegitimate sons, all born before his marriage.

By Edith de Willesford (d. after 1385):
* Sir Roger Clarendon (1352 - executed 1402); he married Margaret (d. 1382), a daughter of John Fleming, Baron de la Roche.

By unknown mothers:
* Edward (b. ca. 1353 - died young)

* Sir John Sounders

* Sir Charles FitzEdward (b. ca. 1354-).

Edward married his cousin, Joan, Countess of Kent (1328-1385), on 10 October 1361. She was the daughter and heiress of Edmund of Woodstock, Earl of Kent, the younger son of King Edward I by his second wife Margaret of France. They had two sons from this marriage.

Both sons were born in France, where the Prince and Princess of Wales had taken up duties as Prince and Princess of Aquitaine.

* Edward of Angoulême (27 January 1365 - January 1372)

* Richard II of England (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400) often referred to as Richard of Bordeaux for his place of birth.

From his marriage to Joan, he also became stepfather to her children, including

Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent whose daughter, Joan Holland, would marry Edward's brother, Edmund of Langley.

Edward's other stepson, John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter, would marry Edward's niece, Elizabeth of Lancaster, daughter of his brother, John of Gaunt. ... " Wikipedia


The next question has to be why the pope would make a moor the king of England. All royal marriages had to be approved by the pope in the 1300's.

However, while a moorish king of England may seem strange today, Islamic moors had already been sovereigns of Spain and Portugal for several hundred years. ... Al-Andalus (711 -1492).


(April 24, 2017) The fact pattern on the black prince Edward Woodstock indicates he was not the only black royal in 1300's England. For example, the black prince married his cousin Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent" - which suggests the "fair" maid may have had black blood.

Also his father Edward III married Philippa of Hainault, his second cousin. If Philippa was black, Edward III also probably had black blood.

What this seems is Egyptian. Marrying your sister or blood relatives was a habit of Egyptian royalty.


The Hawara portraits on page 90 of this website are proof of black aristocrats in Roman Egypt. Britain was a minor Roman province and may have been given to one or more of these black Roman aristocrats as a private fiefdom.






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© 2005 by Waweru Njenga. All rights reserved.

First posted: 9/5/2005