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This is the middle-top section of the Rosetta stone, which includes both hieroglyphs and demotic script.

I call this photo, taken in December 2017:

"Rosetta - 3"

Sir Wallis Budge was one of the founders of the field of Egyptology, but is no longer cited as a serious source by mainstream scholars of ancient Egypt.

There are many reasons for this, but probably the main reason is Budge's contention that ancient Egyptian civilization derived from black African sources.

According to Wikipedia: " ... Budge was also a prolific author, and he is especially remembered today for his works on ancient Egyptian religion and his hieroglyphic primers. Budge argued that the religion of Osiris had emerged from an indigenous African people:

"There is no doubt", he said of Egyptian religions in Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection (1911), "that the beliefs examined herein are of indigenous origin, Nilotic or Sundani in the broadest signification of the word, and I have endeavoured to explain those which cannot be elucidated in any other way, by the evidence which is afforded by the Religions of the modern peoples who live on the great rivers of East, West, and Central Africa . . . Now, if we examine the Religions of modern African peoples, we find that the beliefs underlying them are almost identical with those Ancient Egyptian ones described above. As they are not derived from the Egyptians, it follows that they are the natural product of the religious mind of the natives of certain parts of Africa, which is the same in all periods."

Budge's contention that the religion of the Egyptians was derived from similar religions of the people of northeastern and central Africa was regarded as impossible by his colleagues. At the time, all but a few scholars followed Flinders Petrie in his theory that the culture of Ancient Egypt was derived from an invading Caucasoid "Dynastic Race," which had conquered Egypt in late prehistory and introduced the Pharaonic culture. ... " Wikipedia


(December 20, 2017) By coincidence I just saw a documentary on the search for the lost Ark of the Covenant on cable TV. An un-intended by-product of this show was a boat trip on the main source of the Nile - Lake Tana in Ethiopia. See: "Expedition Unknown: with Josh Gates" on the Travel Channel.

Due to an unsettled political situation in Ethiopia - which has only recently opened up to the rest of the world, this cable video is probably the best and only visual evidence of life on Lake Tana. It is not what I expected, and I have been able to gather a few more photo's on the internet:

Lake Tana

Lake Tana - 2

Lake Tana - 3

Lake Tana - 4

Lake Tana - 5

Lake Tana - 6

Lake Tana - 7

Lake Tana - 8

Lake Tana -9

The impression one gets is of a sun-lake. Furthermore, a little research leads you to the curious fact that this is one of the few places on earth where you can see papyrus reed boats that were once a main source of transportation in ancient Egypt. The infant Moses was saved in one of these reed boats.

Also compare with the classic wooden "sun-boat" of Egyptian mythology.

According to "Tankwas: the papyrus boats of Lake Tana - Ethiopia" a movie by Jean-yves Empereur: " ... Papyrellas, or papyrus boats, are often represented on the terracottas, paintings and mosaics of ancient Egypt .The papyrus plant, however, disappeared from the Egyptian countryside centuries ago, and one must travel to Ethiopia to see such craft, locally known as tankwas. The papyrus reed grows on the banks of Lake Tana, a lake that lies at 1850 metres above sea level and through which the Blue Nile flows, by more than 4000 km far from the river’s mouth. The local inhabitants use the long stems of this plant to build their boats. Bundles of dried papyrus, laid end to end with a slight overlap, are lashed to an untrimmed pole of eucalyptus wood that acts as a sort of keel. The boat has a short life span of some three months and costs the equivalent of 3 euros. Its length depends on the end use : from 1 metre for those built for children, up to 12 metres for the largest that are used to transport cargoes of wood or as ferries carrying a dozen passengers from one bank of the Nile to the other. Hundreds of these tankwas crisscross Lake Tana, as they have for millennia, representing an essential part of commercial exchange and reflecting a sustainable and respectful exploitation of the local ecology. ... "

Furthermore, the explorer Thor Heyerdahl was forced to visit Lake Tana when building his reed-boat when he was attempting to prove ancient links between Egypt and the reed-boat building cultures of ancient South America: that's where he recruited his reed boat -builders.

(Dec, 21, 2017) Njemps fishermen on Lake Baringo, Kenya, also still use a boat very similar to the Lake Tana reed boats called an Ambach canoe - made from local Ambach wood. Its a variation on an ancient Nile valley prototype.

Compare with:

- A wall relief of ancient Egyptian on a papyrus reed boat

- A relief depicting hunters in papyrus-reed boats with captured birds.

- Wall relief of men on a papyrus reed boat nailing their lances into hippos and crocodiles, from the Mastaba of Ti (5th Dynasty) , c. 2494 BC

- Wall relief of men in papyrus boats in the tomb of Mereruka (6th Dynasty) c. 2345 BC

- Wall relief of fishermen on a papyrus reed boat in the tomb of Mereruka (6th Dynasty) c. 2345 BC

- Wall relief of men spearing and hauling in hippopotami from a papyrus reed boat in the tomb of Mereruka (6th Dynasty) c. 2345 BC

- Wall relief of men on a papyrus reed boat in a papyrus thicket; from the tomb of Mereruka (6th Dynasty)c. 2345 BC

- A painting from the tomb of Nebamun hunting on a reed boat on papyrus marshes; c. 1350 BC (18th Dynasty), Thebes (Luxor) Egypt.

- A limestone statue of Prince Rahotep (4th Dynasty). Rahotep's younger brother Khufu is credited with building the Giza pyramids c. 2580 BC

- A bust of Sesostris I, c. 1971 BC (12th Dynasty)


(December 25, 2017) Sigmund Freud in "Moses and Monotheism" was of the opinion that Moses, who was rescued by an Egyptian princess in a reed-boat, was an Egyptian. The same opinion was also held by Manetho, a Ptolemy-dynasty chronicler of ancient Egyptian history.

I think that based on the evidence from the 18th dynasty we can go further and state that both the Egyptian princess who rescued Moses, and Moses himself were what we call "black African" today.

Freud's contention that Moses was an Egyptian never really crosses this racial barrier and modern depictions of the rescue of Moses and his life at court continue to use Caucasian models. The Hollywood examples are ample, but I also recently came upon this depiction of the Moses reed-boat story:"The Finding of Moses" by Sir Alma-Tadema (1904). The princess rescuing Moses is depicted as probably Greek and underneath her, bearing her liter are her dark- skinned attendants, or slaves.

When we view busts from 18th dynasty Egypt a different picture begins to emerge. These Egyptian royals are darker skinned and have fuller lips than you would expect from "Greeks" or other Caucasians.

But the same problem arises when the popular images of these artefact's appear - the skin tone is usually much lighter and the full lips and African features are gone. It's what C.G. Jung would call a "psychic lesion" preventing study of anything on the prohibited side of the problem - in this case the black African base of western civilization.


- Elongated head of a princess, 18th Dynasty Egypt (Neues Museum, Berlin)

-Portrait bust of a daughter of King Akhenaten, 18th Dynasty (Neues Museum, Berlin)

- Quartzite statue of the daughter of King Akhenaten, 18th Dynasty. (State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich)

- Busts of King Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti, 18th Dynasty Egypt (Neues Museum, Berlin)

- King Amenhotep III, 18th Dynasty (Egyptian Museum, Berlin)

- Relief of Hatshepsut and her husband, Thutmose II

- A wooden bust of King Tutankhamun, 18th dynasty ( Egyptian Museum Cairo)

- Elongated head of a princess - 4, 18th Dynasty Egypt

- Bust of Queen Nefertiti - Neues Museum, Berlin (18th dynasty)

- Bust of Queen Nefertiti 2 - Neues Museum, Berlin (18th dynasty)

- Bust of Queen Tiye (mother of Akhenaten) - Neues Museum, Berlin (18th Dynasty)

- Bust of King Akhenaten - Neues Museum, Berlin (18th Dynasty)







This is another photo of middle-top section of the Rosetta stone, which includes both hieroglyphs and demotic script.

I call this photo, taken in December 2017:

"Rosetta - 4"

(Feb. 16, 2018) As has been shown in earlier pages on this website, the holders of the office of Pharaoh moved from Greek Egyptians to Roman emperors. Officially the last recognized pharaoh was the Roman emperor Diocletian. With the birth of Christian Rome or Byzantium, the office of Pharaoh seems to have gone extinct.

However, as work on this website has already shown, a few archaeologists think that Nubian "X-group" of kings were claimants to the title of pharaoh based on the fact that they kept using ancient Egyptian emblems. These emblems can be seen for example on the sun and crescent symbols on the coins of the founders of Axum, Ethiopia.

I also recently came upon this illustration from an ancient Byzantine manuscript. The manuscript depicts the meeting of Pharaoh with the biblical patriarch Abraham and his wife Sarah. Pharaoh and his court is depicted as black African while Abraham is depicted in the expected semitic or even Greek form.

While purporting to depict ancient events, this Byzantine illustration was probably a coded reference to current events. In this reading, the sainted Abraham can be read as a precursor of the newest iteration of the Abrahamic faith - Islam, which emerged from the Sabaean empire of the kings of Axum.


(March 13, 2018) Also from Byzantium is this photo that I recently found of the Horses of Saint Mark.

In 1204 AD, before the final collapse of Byzantium and the fall of Constantinople to the Turks, crusading Frankish knights under the command of the Doge of Venice sacked and looted the eastern capital of the Roman world, Constantinople. Among the greatest prizes taken back to the west were these ancient horse statues which have come to be known as the Horses of Saint Mark after St. Mark's square, Venice where they were exhibited for 600 years before being forcibly relocated to Paris by Napoleon.

There is no consensus as to who created them, but the ancient myth is that they were by the 4th century BC Greek sculptor Lysippos.

Made from copper not bronze, they clearly represent the spirit and strength of ancient Troy. ...


Fish -2

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© 2017 by Waweru Njenga. All rights reserved.

First posted: 12/20/2017




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